Case Study: DataNetworkFlows

Submitted: 20 Feb 2008

Operations Research Topics: IntegerProgramming

Application Areas: Telecommunications Networks

Contents

Problem Description

THE DATA FLOW PROBLEM

Adapted from a real-world problem

Many large companies are starting to centralise their data storage. Centralised data storage allows for increased efficiency of data storage resources, security of the data and reliability of the storage system. Storage Area Networks ("SANs") are a popular way to provide centralised storage. SANs connect servers and/or client machines (known as hosts) to the centralised data storage devices using a network of links (ethernet, fibre channel and/or SCSI cables), hubs and switches.

The problem facing network/storage engineers is how to build a cost-efficient, reliable SAN.

To answer this question, we must first consider the different components of this example SAN:

san.jpg

HOSTS

The hosts are web servers, application servers, client machines, etc. They have a number of port slots for network interface cards (NICs). Each slot has a specified port bandwidth capacity and a port cost (the cost of the NIC to put in the port slot).

san_hosts.jpg

DEVICES

The (storage) devices are disks, disk arrays, tape drives, etc. They have the same attributes as hosts, namely a number of port slots, port bandwidth capacity and port cost.

san_devices.jpg

HUBS

Hubs are one type of aggregation point in a network. They can connect several other components (hosts, devices, switches). However, hubs are essentially loops and any flow going into a hub must visit all the links and ports connected to the hub before leaving to its destination.

san_hub_loop.jpg

This means that the overall hub bandwidth is restricted by the connections made to the hub (that is, the overall hub bandwidth is less than or equal to the minimum of the link bandwidths connected to it). Hubs have a number of port slots, a cost and an overall bandwidth capacity. Hubs come with their port slots preconfigured, i.e., no NIC cards need to be purchased, and the port bandwidth capacity is the same as the overall capacity (for the reason specified earlier).

san_hubs.jpg

SWITCHES

Switches are the other type of aggregation point in a network. Unlike hubs, switches route data intelligently, so each port operates independently. Switches have a number of port slots without NICs, so there is also a port cost for purchasing a NIC. Since the ports operate independently, their port slots have a port bandwidth capacity. There is also the cost of the entire switch to take into account.

san_switches.jpg

LINKS

Finally, links are simply cables that connect one port (or NIC in a port slot) to another. They are typically ethernet, fibre channel or SCSI. Links have a cost and a bandwidth capacity.

san_links.jpg

MAXIMISING THROUGHPUT

A storage networking consultant has been provided with the following network diagram, with the bandwidth capacities shown. This network already exists, so all costs are zero.

san_problem.jpg

His client wants to send 110 MB/s of data from each host to the devices. Where should they send the data?

The cost of a link reduces as its bandwidth capacity decreases. What is the lowest bandwidth capacity for the links in the network that will still support the 110 MB/s flow from the hosts?

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Student Tasks

STUDENT TASKS

The consultant has written some AMPL files to solve his problem. He has completed san.mod and san.dat, but could not complete his script file san.run (his incomplete version is attached, san_incomplete.run)

* san.mod

* san.dat

* san_incomplete.run

1. Complete the script file san.run to find the data flows and discover the lowest link capacity that supports the client's bandwidth. Write a management summary for your solutions.

EXTRA FOR EXPERTS' TASKS

1. The client now wants to know what is the maximum total bandwidth the network will support. Modify san.run to answer this question. Write a management summary for your solution.

What to hand in Your modified san.run file. Your new management summary.

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Topic attachments
I Attachment History Action Size Date Who Comment
Unknown file formatdat san.dat r1 manage 1.0 K 2009-06-29 - 09:41 TWikiAdminUser  
JPEGjpg san.jpg r1 manage 14.6 K 2008-02-19 - 11:33 LaurenJackson  
Unknown file formatmod san.mod r1 manage 0.5 K 2009-06-29 - 09:41 TWikiAdminUser  
JPEGjpg san_devices.jpg r1 manage 19.6 K 2008-02-19 - 11:33 LaurenJackson  
JPEGjpg san_hosts.jpg r1 manage 16.6 K 2008-02-19 - 11:34 LaurenJackson  
JPEGjpg san_hub_loop.jpg r1 manage 16.4 K 2008-02-19 - 11:34 LaurenJackson  
JPEGjpg san_hubs.jpg r1 manage 20.6 K 2008-02-19 - 11:35 LaurenJackson  
Unknown file formatrun san_incomplete.run r1 manage 0.2 K 2009-06-29 - 09:42 TWikiAdminUser  
JPEGjpg san_links.jpg r1 manage 22.2 K 2008-02-19 - 11:35 LaurenJackson  
JPEGjpg san_problem.jpg r1 manage 56.5 K 2008-02-19 - 11:36 LaurenJackson  
JPEGjpg san_switches.jpg r1 manage 22.9 K 2008-02-19 - 11:36 LaurenJackson  
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Topic revision: r9 - 2009-09-07 - TWikiAdminUser
 
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